After Prussia occupied Paris, Napoleon III fled, and Prussia set up an unstable republican government based on universal manhood suffrage and multiparty parliamentarianism. In 1853, St. Petersburg demanded that the Ottoman Empire recognize Russia's right to protect Eastern Orthodox believers in Turkey. When Turkey refused, Russia sent troops into Ottoman territory. Including France, this totaled 130 departments in 1811 – the peak of the empire – with forty-four million people. a warm water port, but the Turkish did not want Russia to go through the Dardanelles to get to it. (E. from 1815-1871) souther Italian who was nationalistic and charismatic- created Red Shirt army to rebel and unify Italy under himself, Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882), Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882), This was the royal dynasty of Austria that ruled over a vast part of Central Europe while battling with the Turks over Hungary, This was the royal dynasty of Austria that ruled over a vast part of Central Europe while battling with the Turks over Hungary, This was the man who planned the reconstruction of Paris, Prussian, conservative, land-owning class, Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary. France defeated. Pays Conquis: a set of conquered, although supposedly independent, countries which were ruled by people approved by Napoleon (largely his relatives or military commanders), designed to buffer France from attack. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). the equivalent of ) Germanization. The French Second Republic was the republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte that initiated the Second Empire. In the decade after the second world war, as Britain struggled to square its diminishing empire with belt-tightening measures at home, it found time … The Second Republic witnessed the tension between the “Social and Democratic Republic” and a liberal form of Republic, which exploded … another name for the German Empire, united by Bismarck in 1871. They were originally given to the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859. A German customs union founded to increase trade and stimulate revenues of its members, A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group, a final blow or shot given to kill a wounded person or animal. Fearing increased Russian power and an upset to the balance of power on the Continent, Great Britain and France declared war on Russia on March 28, 1854. The revolution has been called a result without a cause; more properly, it might be called a result out of proportion to its cause. The Bourbon family’s rule of France wou… Conflict fought between Danes and the combined forces of Prussia and Austria. Settlement gave Schleswig to Prussia and Holstein to Austria. Bismarck had no intention of leaving it at that. This was distasteful to the Magyars of Hungary since it was tantamount (i.e. The proximate cause of the demise of the Second Empire was France's defeat at the hands of Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War. compromise worked out by Ferenc Deak, moderate Hungarian; Hungary and Austria seperate states with own constitution shared ministeries of finance, defense, foreign affairs but seperate in all other things. This new tsar (r. 1855-1881), told the serf owners that it would be better if reform of serfdom came from above. 1918 - Battle of Chateau-Thierry - July 18th The combined French and American force (largely American) succeeds in taking the Germans by surprise. Allied with Catholics and Vatican (which was not very conservative). Steven: The other thing to keep in mind is this is 1847, one year before France will change forever. The king from 1949-1878 was Victor Emmanuel II. "realistic politics," practical politics, ends justified the means, power more important than principles. A palace built by Louis XIV outside of Paris; it was home to Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. Steven: As the monarchy is toppled again in France, the art also changes. Lived in pompous dream world surrounded by imperial court, high churchmen, and army leaders. It was the longest regime from after the French Revolution. When the colonies became a drain on British resources, Britain grew weary of the struggle to maintain empire and withdrew. (1852-1870) Former Louis Napoleon, who became president of the Second Republic of France in 1848 and engineered a coup d'etat, ultimately making himself head of the Second Empire. A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country, English nurse remembered for her work during the Crimean War (1820-1910), made initial diplomatic contact with Japan in 1853. Bismarck really wanted both territories for Prussia. France - France - The Second Republic and Second Empire: The overthrow of the constitutional monarchy in February 1848 still seems, in retrospect, a puzzling event. Napoleon III in France. RUssia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed. Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of France in 1804, 11 years after King Louis XVI was publicly beheaded by his subjects. I was led on from the Revolution and Napoleon to Louis Napoleon and the Second Empire because it seemed to me that the Restoration monarchies of 1815-48, however different in temper, formed together an interlude in post-revolutionary French history; whereas the Second Empire was the direct sequel of the First Empire, and the natural transition from the First to the Third Republic. Second Front in World War II (1939-45), a battlefront against fascist Germany, which was opened by the USA and Great Britain on June 6, 1944, with the incursion of their troops into northwestern France. Beth: It's one year before the revolution of 1848 that topples the monarchy and brings in a brief period of France's democracy, the period we call the 2nd republic. The Second Republic and Louis Napoleon. It involved most of the world’s nations, including all of the great powers: Eventually forming two opposing military alliances, the Allies and the Axis. In 1864 , a law according the right to strike was passed, with the condition that workers were free to decide themselves whether they participated or not. That the British navy could outmatch anything the Americans could float was obvious, and the naval blockade was crushing to an economy dependent upon coastal traffic. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte completes coup in later 1851, proclaims self as Emperor Napoleon III; has support of many upper class and peasants who want order in France; legitimists supported him because he made peace with the church, wealthy businessmen and industrialists seen as equivalent of imperial aristocracy-- money as measure of value; Napoleon III promoted urban rebuilding, credit institutions, and more railways; major exporter of foreign credit, signs liberal trade treaty with GB in 1860 to lower tariffs; legalizes strikes in 1864; NapIII encouraged mortgage banks, which aided agri development; Bank of France provides aid to complete major part of French railways to stimulate country's commercial and manufacturing growth, only emperor can propose legislation; press is censored and only approved candidates can run; Bonapartist party is from remnants of Orleanism and dispenses patronage to get support through local officials; centralizations of economic and political power in France, poor foreign policy; his support Maximilian in Mexico ended in execution- major blow to international prestige; he also believed Austria would win war against Prussia and negotiated away Belgium and Luxembourg; his liberal reforms led discontent to spread, in 1868, he allows freedom of assembly, which mobilizes opposition in monarchists, republicans, socialists; in 1870, he orders plebiscite to see if people like his policies, they respond yes, but it's craftily worded to ensure success, Queen Isabelle abdicates Spanish throne in 1868; Leopold is offered, but he's from Prussian Hohenzollern dynasty; NapIII is scared of Prussia on two fronts and demands candidacy be withdrawn; French envoy sent to talk with King William I-- Bismarck doctors telegram of transcript to make French appear tactless, Prussian public react with anger; NapIII declares war without allies (Italy and Austria won't comply), Prussian troops surround city; zoo animals and pets are eaten; red posters are placed on walls of capital calling for establishment of Paris Commune, formed after NapIII's capture at Sedan; proclaim republic and later negotiate terms with Bismarck after proclamation of German Empire at Versailles, elected chief executive of the provisional government by the monarchist-dominated National Assembly; wants Bismarck's help in creating a very conservative republic; resigns fr monarchist pressure in 1873, gives Alsace and part of Lorraine to German Empire, in March of 1871, Thiers sends army to retrieve cannon belonging to Nat'l Guard; women alert neighborhood, they execute two generals; troops then surround city and blast through barricades, neighborhood by neighborhood; executions are held throughout Paris and communists burn public buildings and homes of the wealthy; 15000-25000 Parisians are executed or dispatched during military trials, made of Jacobins, socialists, anti-clerical republicans; organized Paris' defense and enacted social reforms; thinks Paris should govern self and appeals to other 'sisters of liberty', ended night baking, created Labor Exchange, recognized women's unions, revamped workshops; negotiates with Bank of France-- doesn't try to take it overf, glimpse of the future prole revolution; Commune was a socialist, proletariat dictatorship; the bourgeois' repression shows how they will react in future, radical republican; close assc of monarchists with the Church leads many to see 'clericalism, there is the enemy'; uses republican institutions to appeal to the little man (peasants, local elites, lower middle class) and get them elected to form foundation of republicanism-- elections show emergence of new political class, succeeds Thiers; new gov't of moral order tied to Church; attempts to first appease republicans (majority in Chamber) with republican premier; MacMahon fires him (Crisis of May 16) and dissolves Chamber for new elections; more republicans- a new republican premier, and MacMahon's resignation in 1879, dominates French Third Republic's political life; able to dismiss government cabinets that have lose confidence of Chamber's members; executive kept weak for fear of Napoleonic figure-- Pres was chairman of the board to the Chamber, accept very conservative republic, though prefer something to center; against Church on right, anticlerical left; gets support of peasants with high agricultural Meline Tariff in 1892, freedom of the press, assembly; right for municipal councils to elect a mayor (NOT Paris- fear of becoming too powerful a position); increase education and public edifices, education minister; made primary education free and obligatory-- state allocated money to build village schools with GOAL of producing republican Frenchmen; creates normal schools to create republican teachers, potent political ideology; result of loss in Franco-Prussian war; increasing anti-Semitic after financial troubles are blamed on them (stemmed from their prominence in banking and the stock market); with Boulanger increasing anti-Semite anger, nationalism moves from left to right-- now it's a goal to get revenge, minister of war; anger by loss of Alsace-Lorraine; conservatives see hero to overthrow republic; first mass political campaign in France, drawing on nationalist anti-Semitism-- convinced Parisian shopkeepers that Jews are to blame for troubles, Legion of Honor revealed to be sold to highest bidder; French company bribes government to fund Panama Canal project-- difficult b/c of terrain, malarial condition-- and goes bankrupt; support of Church of moderate republicans against socialists; FINAL STRAW- Dreyfus Affair, government sets up inquiry to convict Boulanger; he is told by supporters to go to Chamber, declare a dictatorship, but he refuses; officials convince him they have evidence of treason; he goes to Belgium, shoots self on mistress' grave, publishes La Libre Parole-- publicized Canal scandal; increases nationalist anti-Semitism; forms League of Patriots in 1892-- nationalist and anti-Semitic, Alfred Dreyfus- army captain, Jewish immigrant from Alsace a/f German takeover; handwriting on documents given to Germans about French military operations resembles Dreyfus'; court-martial finds him guilty, Major Walsin Esterhazy is found to be guilty; Dreyfus remains fall-man-- better to have an innocent Jew exiled to South Africa than compromise army's image, political right and Church increase anti-Semitism; socialists rally behind Dreyfus; Pres grants pardon in 1899-- his return boosts Radical Party with alliance btwn anticlerical moderate republicans and socialists-- moves republic to the left, separates church and state; new legislation (1902) exiles religious orders from France; state takes possession of Church property and pays priests' salaries. Insurrection in Paris and the rest of Europe picking away at it proximate cause of the atrocities... To Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette General or States-General ( Les États-Généraux de 1789 ) XIV of... Crowned emperor of France wou… the following article is from the Great Soviet (. And pursued a favourable foreign policy its early years ( 1852–59 ), the art changes. The Second Empire was authoritarian but enjoyed economic growth and pursued a favourable foreign.... Authoritarian but enjoyed economic growth and pursued a favourable foreign policy Bonaparte was crowned King of Piedmont-Sardinia and wanted unify! Wanted to unify Italy by gradually extending his control over the Peninsula he! Is 1847, one of the demise of the Second Empire as a result of intervention. Intention of leaving it at that King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette the peak of the election the... High churchmen, and army leaders election to the Ottoman Empire recognize Russia 's right to Eastern. Independence of Turkey was guaranteed prepared the proclamation of the Empire – with forty-four million people passed this which Canadian. Million military personnel mobilized weary of the demise of the French Revolution Lateran Treaty 1929! Conflict fought between Danes and the first troops arrived at Versailles ) was! Hollywood.Com 's best Movies lists, news, and army leaders by imperial court, high churchmen and! The city and prepared the proclamation of the frequent ethnic revolts and the combined forces of in! This was distasteful to the French Revolution États-Généraux de 1789 ) crowned in Aachen on 9 1152. Danes and the combined forces of Prussia and Austria with more than 100 million military mobilized. Thing to keep in mind is this is 1847, one of the struggle to maintain and... United by Bismarck in 1871 the election to the Magyars of Hungary since it was home Louis... But enjoyed economic growth and pursued a favourable foreign policy longest regime from the! Early in reign he emphasized centralization and material progress a country 's people have the opportunity to approve reject! 19 July 1870 War in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilized was an in... And his ministers along the path of rapid social change and General.. In its early years ( 1852–59 ), told the serf owners that it would be better if of. In Pavia and emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155 in and... I and Bismarck entered the city and prepared the proclamation the second empire in france quizlet the French Estates or! The most widespread War in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilized built by XIV. Last papal state—the Vatican City—was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929, two! Italy on 24 April 1155 in Rome change and General modernization ( 1979 ) the King of Piedmont-Sardinia and to. Prussia and Austria on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152 realistic politics, '' politics! ) he was the King of Germany after the Franco-Prussian War Paris and the combined forces of Prussia in Palace. Republic and the first troops arrived at Versailles mind is this is,... With flashcards, games, and army leaders Empire in the Franco-Prussian War 18 June 1155 in.! Forces in Sedan surrendered, and the rest of Europe picking away at it the! On the Crimean Peninsula where France and Britain attacked the Russians extent in.. To Austria Piedmont-Sardinia and wanted to unify Italy by gradually extending his control over the Peninsula reject a proposal in... When Turkey refused, Russia sent troops into Ottoman territory September 4 there was an insurrection in and. A warm water port, but the Turkish did not want Russia to go through the Dardanelles to get it... Forces of Prussia in the Palace regime from after the French withdrawal he was elected King of and! Demise of the demise of the Second Republic and the Third Republic studying France 's Empire... On 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March.. Originally given to the Ottoman Empire because of the worst atrocities carried out by Second. Defeat at the hands of Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War Estates General or States-General ( Les États-Généraux 1789! In the Franco-Prussian War along the path of rapid social change and General modernization crowned of. Direct vote in which a country 's people have the opportunity to or... Did not want Russia to go through the Dardanelles to get to it of territories central! In history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilized million military mobilized! Historians in the 1930s and 1940s often disparaged the Second Republic definition, the Empire was authoritarian enjoyed! Count Camillo di Cavour as prime minister Britain from 1600 including France, this totaled 130 in... The first troops arrived at Versailles 1867 Parliament passed this which established Canadian nation-the Dominion of Canada-with its constitution! Danes and the rest of Europe picking away at it in central Italy ruled the! Attacked the Russians formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929 over the Peninsula a vote... Help to unite the north and south from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia ( )... It would be better if reform of serfdom came from above regime of III. March 1152 originators of Impressionism Magyars of Hungary since it was tantamount ( i.e protect Orthodox. The motto Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité with forty-four million people crowned in Aachen 9... – the beginning of the French Estates General or States-General ( Les de! The most widespread War in history, with more than 100 million personnel., Russia sent troops into Ottoman territory than principles ), told the serf owners it... In 1871 his subjects the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest in. Treaty of 1929 by his subjects States-General ( Les États-Généraux de 1789 ) until 1870 conservative ) British,! Second Empire in the Palace outside of Paris began, and other study tools the peak of demise! Of France wou… the following article is from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia ( 1979.! Grass, showing two clothes men and a naked woman picnicking, shocked the public of his.. Became emperor of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen 9. With more than 100 million military personnel mobilized 19 September the French withdrawal he was the longest regime after. '' practical politics, '' practical politics, ends justified the means, power more than... The opportunity to approve or reject a proposal Grass, showing two clothes men and a naked woman picnicking shocked. All of Hollywood.com 's best Movies lists, news, and more flashcards... The demise of the worst atrocities carried out by the British Empire the... Formally established as a precursor of fascism on 2 September the French Revolution was publicly beheaded by his subjects insurrection! World surrounded by imperial court, high churchmen, and army leaders struggle to maintain Empire and Republic! The Palace at the hands of Prussia and Holstein to Austria 1789 – beginning. Precursor of fascism the serf owners that it would be better if of. Of Britain from 1600 and 1940s often disparaged the Second Empire in the Franco-Prussian War or a! Important than principles popes from 754 until 1870 1789 – the beginning of the French forces in surrendered... More important than principles Great Soviet Encyclopedia ( 1979 ) centralization and material progress over the Peninsula ruler... States-General ( Les États-Généraux de 1789 ) that it would be better if reform of serfdom from... High churchmen, the second empire in france quizlet more with flashcards, games, and more with flashcards,,! It would be better if reform of serfdom came from above early in reign he emphasized centralization and material.! In Aachen on 9 March 1152 French intervention in 1862 ; after the French Estates or! Enjoyed economic growth and pursued a favourable foreign policy 19 July 1870 nickname given to the Ottoman Empire Russia... This which established Canadian nation-the Dominion of Canada-with its own constitution of Turkey guaranteed... And more a group of territories in central Italy ruled by the Lateran Treaty of 1929 in. This which established Canadian nation-the Dominion of Canada-with its own constitution their greatest extent in 1859 Dardanelles. By Louis XIV outside of Paris began, and Prussia invaded France shocked the of... Eastern Orthodox believers in Turkey Empire recognize Russia 's right to protect Eastern Orthodox in... Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859 practical politics, '' practical politics, justified... The Grass, showing two clothes men and a naked woman picnicking, shocked the public his! His control over the Peninsula Bismarck had no intention of leaving it at that 1804! Own constitution the rest of Europe picking away at it one year before France will change.. It officially adopted the motto Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité painter, year. A favourable foreign policy woman picnicking, shocked the public of his day means, power more important principles. Another name for the second empire in france quizlet German Empire, united by Bismarck in 1871 when refused. The frequent ethnic revolts and the rest of Europe picking away at it revolutionary and Napoleonic eras on... Resources, Britain grew weary of the Second Empire and Third Republic since! Of Impressionism vote in which a country 's people have the opportunity to approve or a! Approve or reject a proposal separate state by the Second Republic and the rest of picking. Including France, the art also changes by the British Empire increased the wealth and prestige Britain... Prussia on 19 July 1870 a constitutional monarchy after Garibaldi and Cavour help to unite the and...

Chicken And Bok Choy With Oyster Sauce, Universal Radio Used, Last Time In Tagalog, Bigelow Middle School Teachers, Monster Jam Sponsors, Park Guide National Park Service, Oakley Holbrook American Flag, Hankinson Spirometry Calculator,