They were deposed after the Allies liberated Paris and Charles de Gaulle assumed power as the true leader of France. His 'national revolution' was to be a counter-revolution eliminating all the progress and human rights won in the last one hundred and fifty years". By the same vote, they also granted him the power to write a new constitution. [88] As soon as it was established, Pétain's government voluntarily took measures against "undesirables": Jews, métèques (immigrants from Mediterranean countries), Freemasons, Communists, Gypsies (also known as Romani), homosexuals,[89] and left-wing activists. [116] This fact has been used as arguments by supporters of Vichy; according to Paxton, the figure would have been greatly lower if the "French state" had not willfully collaborated with Germany, which lacked staff for police activities. It was directed by Xavier Vallat until May 1942 and then by Darquier de Pellepoix until February 1944. Yes, it's convenient, but it is false. Initially, Winston Churchill was ambivalent about de Gaulle, and Churchill severed diplomatic ties with Vichy only when it became clear that the Vichy government would not join the Allies. [98] The Statute on Jews excluded them from the civil administration. In July 1940, Vichy set up a special commission charged with reviewing naturalisations granted since the 1927 reform of the nationality law. They added compulsory (and volunteer) workers from occupied nations, especially in metal factories. Other members escaped to Italy or Spain. In 1940, a majority of politicians of … Their policy changed in tune with the fortunes of the war. By mid-June, the military situation of the French was dire, and it was apparent that the French had lost. They were aided by the absence of popular, charismatic figures who might have opposed them, such as Georges Mandel and Édouard Daladier, then aboard the ship Massilia on their way to North Africa and exile. What happened to the government officials of the Vichy France after WW2? [73], French Guiana on the northern coast of South America, removed its Vichy supporting government on 22 March 1943,[74] shortly after eight allied ships were sunk by a German submarine off the coast of Guiana,[75] and the arrival of American troops by air on 20 March. [30] As early as February 1936, Pétain had told the Italian Ambassador to France that "England has always been France's most implacable enemy"; he went on to say that France had "two hereditary enemies", namely Germany and Britain, with the latter being easily the more dangerous of the two; and he wanted a Franco-German-Italian alliance that would partition the British Empire, an event that Pétain claimed would solve all of the economic problems caused by the Great Depression. President Albert Lebrun appointed Philippe Petain as the new premier. [51] The crime of "felony of opinion" (délit d'opinion) was re-established, effectively repealing freedom of thought and expression; critics were frequently arrested. It included left-wing activists (communists, anarchists, trade-unionists, anti-militarists) and pacifists, as well as French fascists who supported Italy and Germany. Bousquet and Leguay were both convicted for their responsibilities in the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup of July 1942. A Commissariat-General for Jewish Affairs (CGQJ, Commissariat Général aux Questions Juives) was created on 29 March 1941. This occurred through a series of consultations between Giraud and de Gaulle. Tulard had previously created such a filing system under the Third Republic, registering members of the Communist Party (PCF). New Caledonia contributed personnel both to the Bataillon du Pacifique and to the Free French Naval Forces that saw action in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. [170] A reason for the latter is that any racially discriminatory condominium or other local rule that may have existed "on paper", Vichy-era or otherwise, was invalidated by the constitutions of the French Fourth Republic (1946) and French Fifth Republic (1958) and was inapplicable under French antidiscrimination law. They had not been deported because, until January 1943, there had usually been enough foreigners and their children to fill the forty-three trains that had carried about 41,591 people to the east... By January 1943, foreign Jews were increasingly aware of the danger and difficult to find. "It was indeed France that organised this", Macron insisted, French police collaborating with the Nazis. Breaking its word, it handed those who were under its protection over to their executioners," he said. After attempts to encourage them to join the Allies were rebuffed by the defenders, a sharp fight erupted between Vichy and Allied forces. De Gaulle wanted to pursue a political position in France and agreed to have Giraud as commander-in-chief, as the more qualified military person of the two. The Constitutional Acts of 11 and 12 July 1940[55] granted to Pétain all powers (legislative, judicial, administrative, executive – and diplomatic) and the title of "head of the French state" (chef de l'État français), as well as the right to nominate his successor. One of these rules, for example, stated that: The contractors shall make the following statements: they are of French nationality, are not Jewish, nor married to Jewish in the sense of the laws and ordinances in force [under Vichy, ed. The regional newspaper Nice Matin revealed on 28 February 2007, that in more than 1,000 condominium properties on the Côte d'Azur, rules dating to Vichy were still "in force", or at least existed on paper. [56] Reynaud was arrested in September 1940 by the Vichy government and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1941 before the opening of the Riom Trial. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). German laws took precedence over French ones in the occupied territories, and the Germans often rode roughshod over the sensibilities of Vichy administrators. They finally returned home in the summer of 1945. Collaborationists were brought to the Vélodrome d'hiver, Fresnes prison or the Drancy internment camp. Algiers was headquarters of the Vichy French XIX Army Corps, which controlled Vichy military units in North Africa. Many officials, including Prime Minister Paul Reynaud, wanted to move the government to French territories in North Africa, and continue the war with the French Navy and colonial resources. Jewish goods were "aryanized" (i.e. It is difficult to know exactly how many French Jews were arrested, usually for specific or alleged offences, but on 21 January 1943, Helmut Knochen informed Eichmann in Berlin that there were 2,159 French citizens among the 3,811 prisoners at Drancy. Later, the Americans sent Jean Monnet to counsel Giraud and to press him to repeal the Vichy laws. Conversely, Vichy France became a collaborationist regime. [135] The forced labour draft encouraged the French Resistance and undermined the Vichy government.[136]. Name. Vichy was centrally located and had many hotels for ministers to use. [12][13][14] Diplomatic relations with Great Britain had been severed since 8 July 1940, after the Attack on Mers-el-Kébir. 2018. The main arguments advanced against Vichy's right to incarnate the continuity of the French state were based on the pressure exerted by Pierre Laval, former Premier in the Third Republic, on the deputies in Vichy, and on the absence of 27 deputies and senators who had fled on the ship Massilia, and thus could not take part in the vote. From 5 May to 6 November 1942, British and Commonwealth forces conducted Operation Ironclad, known as the Battle of Madagascar: the seizure of the large, Vichy French-controlled island of Madagascar, which the British feared Japanese forces might use as a base to disrupt trade and communications in the Indian Ocean. In the early months of 1943, the terror [Adam] Munz and [Alfred] Feldman described in German-occupied France was still experienced by foreign Jews like themselves. The armistice allowed it a breathing space." [citation needed] René Bousquet, the head of French police nominated by Vichy, exercised his power in Paris through his second-in-command, Jean Leguay, who coordinated raids with the Nazis. It even, at first, opposed German plans. It was given financial autonomy and a budget of forty million francs, roughly one franc per inhabitant: a true luxury considering the burdens imposed by the German Occupation on the nation's resources. The function of these forces was to keep internal order and to defend French territories from Allied assault. When France declared war on Germany on September 3, 1939, following the German invasion of Poland, the … The official postwar French position was that Vichy was a German puppet state. Vichy's ambition was doomed from the start. Charged with the "study, in all of its aspects, of measures aimed at safeguarding, improving and developing the French population in all of its activities", the Foundation was created by decree of the collaborationist Vichy regime in 1941, and Carrel was appointed as "regent". [48][note 1] By Act No. Approximately 9,000 of these 10,000 refer to summary executions in the whole of the country, which occurred during battle. The Vichy leaders actively pursued their own double agenda―internally, the authoritarian and racist "national revolution," and, externally, an attempt to persuade Hitler to accept this new France as a partner in his new Europe. Most of the victims died en route due to lack of food or water. From that point on, the regime was referred to officially as the État Français (French State). [93], The Third Republic had first opened concentration camps during World War I for the internment of enemy aliens and later used them for other purposes. In 1940, the Nazis wanted only to dump German Jews into unoccupied France. [citation needed] The French possessions in Oceania joined the Free French side in 1940, or in one case in 1942. These were broken after Vichy expressed support for Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. Because of its unique situation in the history of France, its contested legitimacy,[1] and the generic nature of its official name, the "French State" is most often represented in English by the synonyms "Vichy France", "Vichy regime", "government of Vichy", or in context, simply "Vichy". Dauzat & al. "The Changing Image of Vichy in France", Jacques Sabille. [36] Typical of Vichy anti-British propaganda was the widely distributed pamphlet published in August 1940 and written by self-proclaimed "professional Anglophobe" Henri Béraud titled Faut-il réduire l'Angleterre en esclavage? Only four senior Vichy officials were tried for crimes against humanity, although many more had participated in the deportation of Jews for internment in Nazi concentration camps, abuses of prisoners, and severe acts against members of the Resistance. Including the Jews who died in concentration camps in France, this would have made for a total figure of 90,000 Jewish deaths (a quarter of the total Jewish population before the war, by his estimate). After the National Assembly under the Third Republic voted to give full powers to Philippe Pétain on 10 July 1940, the name République Française (French Republic) disappeared from all official documents. note], The president of the Conseil Représentatif des Institutions juives de France-Côte d'Azur, a Jewish association group, issued a strong condemnation labelling it "the utmost horror" when one of the inhabitants of such a condominium qualified this as an "anachronism" with "no consequences". 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